Thursday, June 10, 2010

Karna - The Generous

Karna is one of the most fascinating characters in the Mahabharata. Born of Kunti, the mother of the Pandavas, he was fated to fight on the side of the Kauravas. However, Karna stands out among the other warriors thanks to his generosity and his gratitude to those who helped him in his time of need.

Kunti was a young princess when the great sage Durvasa visited her father’s kingdom. She took great care of the sage and looked to his comforts with humility. The sage was pleased and decided to grant her a boon. With his unique powers, he foresaw the future, and taught her a mantra which would invoke a god of her choice, who would give her a son.

The young Kunti was curious about the mantra, and seeing the sun shining brightly, invoked the Sun God, but was appalled when she found herself with a small child, bright as the sun himself, wearing golden earrings and armour. Afraid of the consequences of her rash action, Kunti abandoned the child, placing him in a basket floating down the river.

The child was found by Adhirath, a charioteer of Hastinapur. A childless man, he took the child as a gift from the gods and brought him up as his own son. Named Vasusena by his adoptive parents, the child came to be known as Karna due to the golden earrings he was born with, in his ears (ears are called 'karn' in sanskrit).

Kunti was later married to Pandu, the king of Hastinapur, and had three children. Pandu had two more children through his other wife. These five children were known as the Pandavas. After the death of Pandu, it was Kunti who brought them up together, proud of her five sons, though never forgetting her first born, the one she could never call her own.

Karna grew up in the charioteer’s house, but his illustrious lineage showed through his actions. Wishing to learn the arts of war, he tried to gain acceptance into one of the many ashrams teaching young Kshatriyas and Brahmins the skill of handling weapons, but was refused admission since he was the son of a charioteer, considered to belong a low caste. Tutoring himself, he mastered many skills, and finally gained the tutelage of the great Parasurama, but under the guise of a Brahmin, since there was no other caste the sage would teach. Parasurama started teaching him the secret of the Brahmastra, the greatest of all weapons, believing him to be a Brahmin. One day, as Parasurama reclined on Karna’s lap, a bee bit Karna, and, unwilling to wake the sage, Karna bore the pain as well as he could. The sage awoke and realized Karna’s predicament, but was furious, for he realized that no Brahmin could bear the kind of pain Karna had. He knew at once that Karna was a Kshatriya, and refused to accept Karna’s assurance to the contrary. In his anger, the sage cursed Karna that since he had lied to his guru, he would forget the skill he had learnt through deceit at the moment he most needed them.

Karna’s misfortune continued when he mistakenly shot a cow and was cursed that he himself would be killed when he was as helpless as the cow he had killed.

In spite of such misfortunes, Karna continued to master all the skills he could learn. His caste again came in the way when he tried to prove himself as a talented archer, and he was not allowed to showcase his skills against those of the princes.

Duryodhana recognized the talent of the young man, and was quick to enlist his friendship, making him the King of Anga, thus elevating his status. It was a favor Karna never forgot, considering himself indebted to Duryodhana for the gesture, and stood by his friend through thick and thin, even after he learnt the story of his birth. While he was aware of Duryodhana’s wrongdoing, and continually advised him against it, he was always grateful for his friendship, and always stood by his side, to the extent of fighting the war with Duryodhana even when he knew he was doomed to die.

Arjuna and Karna were bitter enemies, especially since they were both equally adept at archery.

Kunti worried about the rivalry between her sons and Karna. She recognized him as her abandoned son and regretted her hasty action. In an attempt to make amends, she went to meet him as he performed his oblations in the river, a ritual he performed every day at dawn. Surprised to see the mother of his rival waiting for him, he asked her the reason for her presence.

 Kunti related to Karna the story of his birth and begged him to join the Pandavas, his brothers. Karna was saddened by the tale, but he said, “I can never abandon Duryodhana, since he befriended me when I had no friends. I can not be so ungrateful as to abandon him in his need.” However, he reassured Kunti that his rivalry was with Arjuna; and Arjuna alone. He would not fight or kill any of her other sons during the battle. He would only fight with Arjuna.

Indra was also worried, since he knew that Karna was the only danger to Arjuna. He also knew that as the son of the Sun God Surya, Karna was born with golden earrings and armour which made him invincible. He therefore decided to trick Karna into parting with them. Surya was aware of Indra’s intention, and warned Karna.  

Indra arrived in the guise of a Brahmin when Karna was completing his morning rituals, knowing that Karna would give alms to the poor Brahmins after he finished. Karna at once recognized Indra, but graciously asked him to accept something. Indra was waiting for Karna’s word, and at once asked him for his earrings and armour. Karna smiled, and taking his knife, immediately cut off the armour which grew with his body, and his earrings, and handed them over to Indra, remarking that he was happy to be able to give alms to the king of the gods himself.

Indra was stunned by Karna’s generosity, and offered him a boon in return. Karna asked for Indra’s Shakti, an invincible weapon which always found its mark. Indra had no choice but to grant his wish, but he added a condition that Karna would be able to use it just once.

Karna was surely the most generous of men, but his misfortunes in the form of various curses, and his bad choice of companions proved to be his downfall. Keeping his promise to Kunti, he refused to fight any of the Pandavas except Arjuna, saving his most potent weapon for his arch rival. Unfortunately, he was forced to use the Shakti when Bhima’s rakshasa son Ghatotkach threatened to wipe out the Kaurava forces, since nothing else seemed to work against the giant. At the final battle with Arjuna, all his curses seemed to work together, when he first forgot the mantras which he had learnt from Parasurama, and finally when his chariot wheel got stuck in the mud, and he was killed by Arjuna while he was helpless, trying to get it out.

Karna might have been one of the Kauravas, a close friend of Duryodhana, but he will always be remembered for his generosity. Indeed, he earned well the name “Daanveer Karna”!

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Great story of Karna and excellently narrated here. Thanks!

Related Posts with Thumbnails

Read or Download the entire collection of Stories

Read 'The Lion and the Mouse' from the Karadi Tales' The Mouse Stories, online for free!